“Facts and information about the climate in Brazil”
Most of Brazil is situated between the Equator to the north, and the Tropic of Capricorn in southern Brazil, which makes the climate of Brazil mostly tropical to subtropical, where there is little seasonal variation. In Brazil rain is frequent, and temperatures range from 23-35°C (72-95°F) and sometimes higher and lower.
Since Brazil lies mostly on the southern side of the Equator, seasons are opposite of countries in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the United States or Europe. The winter in Brazil is from June-September and summer is November-March, although Brazil’s seasons are less distinct than they are in temperate zones due to its close proximity to the equator.
The northern parts of Brazil are the hottest and the southern states are a bit cooler with seasonal variations that are a little more distinct. In the southern states of Santa Catarina and Rio-Grande do Sul, temperatures can get low enough to occasionally produce frost in the winter months. But most of the country is tropical or subtropical and typically humid almost everywhere. During the summer months, it can get uncomfortably hot just about everywhere in Brazil.
Rainfall levels vary widely throughout Brazil. But, most of Brazil has moderate rainfall of between 1,000 and 1,500 mm (39 and 59 inches) a year, with most of the rain falling in the summer, between December and April. The Amazon region receives the most amount of rainfall, with more than 2,000 mm (79 inches) per year and reaching as high as 3,000 mm (118 inches) in some parts of the western Amazon.
Brazil has six climatic regions: tropical rainforest (equatorial), tropical wet and dry, high altitude tropical, Atlantic tropical, semiarid, and subtropical. See map below
The North region of Brazil consists of mostly the Amazon rainforest.
Seven states make up this sparsely populated region: Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, and Tocantins. The regions largest cities are Manaus and Belem.
This region covers 45% of the national territory of Brazil and consists of mostly the Amazon rainforest, which
features the Amazon river with its thousands of tributaries. The Amazon river is the world’s most extensive river system with a length of about 6,500 km (4,040 miles). It is also the world’s largest river in volume and contains one-fifth of all the fresh water on earth.
The climate of the North region in Brazil is an equatorial climate, which is a tropical climate. It is characterized by high humidity and hot temperatures. Extremely high temperatures in the Amazon is some what of a myth; temperatures rarely reach more than 32°C (90°F), it is just the high humidity that makes the area seem so hot. Average temperatures are 23-27°C (72-81°F), with not much variation between the warmest and the coldest months due to its close proximity to the equator.
The Amazon is one of the wettest places on earth and receives rainfall all year round. Rainfall can fall at any time, but it is generally short-lived. Although, most areas in the north have no dry season, some places have somewhat of short relief between July-November, and the rivers are highest from December-June.
The Amazon region generally receives more than 2,000 mm (79 inches) per year in rainfall and reaching as high as 3,000 mm (118 inches) in parts of the western Amazon and near Belem.
Coastal East & Southeast
The coastal East & coastal Southeast of Brazil, from Rio-Grande do Norte to the state of Sao Paulo has a tropical climate that is also hot and humdid, which receives a good amount of rainfall, but slightly less rainfall than the north. Seasons are more distinct compared to the north region.
The coastal southeast, such as Rio de Janerio and cities along the coast in the state of Sao Paulo have a tropical climate. The summer months are typically very hot and humid, often averaging between 24-28°C (75-86°F) and it is not uncommon for daytime temperatures to reach 38°C (100°F) or higher. Summer is also the rainy season from December-March. Winter temperatures usually average around the 22°C (72°F) mark and get down to 18° (64°) for lows.
The northeast coast also has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. Being nearer to the equator it experiences little differences in summer/winter temperatures compared to the Coastal Southeast.
Average temperatures are not much different throughout the year with an average annual temperature of 27 °C (81 °F). December and January are the warmest months, with a high of 31°C (88°F) and low of 25°C (77°F). July experiences the coolest temperatures, with mean temperatures ranging from 22°C (72°F) to 27°C (81°F)
The Interior & Central-West
Most of Brazil’s interior features a tropical climate, that is semi-humid with a hot and rainy summer from December-March and with a pronounced dry season in the middle of the year. The winter, from June-August, is drier and cooler.
Much of the interior of Brazil feature highlands and plateaus within the central part of Brazil. To the far west is the lowlands of the Pantanal, a tropical wetland and the world’s largest wetland of any kind. The Pantanal, which is basically a floodplain that is fed by the upper Paraguay River, has an average yearly rainfall of 1,000–1,400 mm (39–55 in). Its average temperature is 25°C (77°F), but temperatures can fluctuate from 0 to 40°C (32 to 104°F)
The mountainous areas of the interior Southeast of Brazil has a high altitude tropical climate, similar to the semi-humid tropical climate, but rainy and dry seasons are more pronounced. Temeratures in the winter can get quite cool, averaging from 18-23°C (64-73°F) and sometimes in the winter months that can drop to 10°C (50°F)
There is also a part of the interior in Northeast Brazil that has a semi-arid climate. There it is hot and is the driest part of Brazil is located here. Rainfall here is sparse, with most of the rainfall during only three months from March-May, but sometimes the season is shorter, and in some years there is no rain at all. The average annual temperature here is 24-27°C (75-80°F) and it can also reach extreme temps of more than 38°C (100°F).
Brazil’s south, below the Tropic of Capricorn, has a subtropical climate or temperate climate. The south consists of the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul.
In summer, from November-March, it is typically humid with temperatures in the summer that vary between 22°C (71.6°F) to 32 °C (89.6 °F).
The winter in the south, from June-September, is mild and temperatures vary from 10-15°C (50-59°F), and temperatures can occasional drop to the freezing point where frost is present in some areas and sometimes snowfall in the high plateaus and mountainous areas of some regions.
Rainfall is distributed regularly throughout the year, but the summer months typically receive the most amounts. Rains and storms, sometimes hail, producing winds with bursts of 60 to 90 km/h (37.3 to 55.9 mph) are also present in the region.
The geography of the south region is characterised by an inland plateau and low mountains that form the southern end of the Serra do Mar costal mountain range. Southern Brazil was once covered by dense pine forests, but the inland plateau is today largely deforested and has become a center for an agro-industry and is a top producer in grain for Brazil.
Brazil’s most southern state, Rio Grande do Sul, also shares the pampa, a vast grass-covered plain that exends into Uruaguay and Argentina. The region is an important cattle-raising region.
Climate of Brazil Facts
mostly tropical, but subtropical in south
Brazil average temperature: 23-35°C (72-95°F)
Amazon average temperature: 23-27°C (72-81°F)
Brazil average rainfall total: 1,000-1,500 millimeters (39 to 59 inches)
Amazon rainfall total: over 2,000 millimeters (79 inches) per year